It was used officially until the 6th century bce and lingered on for several centuries more. Offshoots from the South Semitic branch include the Minaean, Himyaritic, Qatabanic, and Hadhramautic alphabets in southern Arabia, and Thamudene, Dedanite, and Safaitic alphabets in the northern part of the peninsula.
It is now generally agreed that the originators belonged to the Northwest Semitic linguistic group, which includes the ancient Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Hebrews.
This was the invention of a consonantal writing system known as North Semitic. With regard to the Semitic offshoots, six separate alphabets may be discerned: In default of other direct evidence, it is reasonable to suppose that the actual prototype of the alphabet was not very different from the writing of the earliest North Semitic inscriptions now extantwhich belong to the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.
The Hebrew order of the letters seems to be the oldest. Egyptian writing writing all letters of alphabet assessments, cuneiformCretan, hieroglyphic Hittite, the Cypriot syllabaryand other scripts have all been called prototypes of the alphabet. The Early Canaanite theory is based on several undeciphered inscriptions also discovered since at various Palestinian sites; the writings belong in part to c.
Almost as if by prearrangement, all of the alphabetic scripts west of Syria seem to have been derived, directly or indirectly, from the Canaanite alphabet, whereas the hundreds of alphabetic writings of the East apparently have sprung from the offshoots of the Aramaic alphabet.
Over the centuries, various theories have been advanced to explain the origin of alphabetic writing, and, since Classical times, the problem has been a matter of serious study.
That they manifest closely related efforts is certain; what the exact relationship among these efforts was, and what their relationship with the North Semitic alphabet was, cannot be said with certainty.
The true alphabetic system has remained for 3, years, with only slight modifications, an unparalleled vehicle of expression and communication in and among the most diverse nationalities and languages.
Moreover, the North Semitic languages, based as they are on a consonantal root i. The Greek alphabet, created early in the 1st millennium bce, spread in various directions in Asia MinorEgypt, Italy, and other places, but far and away its most important descendants in terms of widespread use were the Latin through Etruscan and Cyrillic alphabets.
Only very few inscriptions have been found in Phoenicia proper. There is, however, no doubt that the Phoenician use of the North Semitic alphabet went farther back. This step occurred between and bce.
Similarly, the idea that cuneiform was the precursor of the alphabet may also be subdivided into those singling out Sumerian, Babylonian, or Assyrian cuneiform. The Canaanite and Aramaic branches constitute the North Semitic main branch. Some of these alphabets became links between the Aramaic alphabet and the numerous scripts used for the non-Semitic languages of Central, South, and Southeast Asia.
The Greeks and Romans considered five different peoples as the possible inventors of the alphabet—the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Cretans, and Hebrews.
Despite the conflict in theories, scholars are generally agreed that, for about years before the middle of the 2nd millennium bce, alphabet making was in the air in the Syro-Palestinian region. The process of the reestablishment of the Assyrian empire and its hegemony over a good part of the Middle East began in the 9th century.
See also Dead Sea Scrolls. As a result, an alphabet developed with four main branches: It was in use at the beginning of the 1st millennium bce.
Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. Page 1 of 2. The Egyptian theory actually subdivides into three separate theories, according to whether the Egyptian hieroglyphic, the hieratic, or the demotic script is regarded as the true parent of alphabetic writing.
A cursive style reached its climax in the inscriptions at Tel Lakhish, dating from the beginning of the 6th century bce. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the Phoenician alphabet in the history of writing. Another hypothesisthe Ugaritic theory, evolved after an epoch-making discovery in and the years following at the site of the ancient Ugariton the Syrian coast opposite the most easterly cape of Cyprus.
Others hold that the alphabet follows the flag; that is, that the diffusion of an alphabet results from political and military conquests by the people who use it.
In Syria and Palestine, the geographical centre of the Fertile Crescent, three nations—Israel, Phoenicia, and Aram—played an increasingly important political role.
Among modern theories are some that are not very different from those of ancient days.Student assessment pages are included for Alphabet Recognition and Letter Sound Identification, since students will be identifying letters and sounds of the graphemes.
A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound. Of all the accomplishments of the ancient Middle East, the invention of the alphabet is probably the greatest. While pre-alphabetic systems of writing in the Old World became steadily more phonetic, they were still exceedingly cumbersome, and the syllabic systems that gradually replaced them.
Determine students' abilities to name uppercase and lowercase letters using our Alphabet Letter Naming assessments. Three forms assess recognition of uppercase and lowercase letters.
The fourth is a matching exercise in which children match uppercase letters with lowercase letters. Find and save ideas about Letter assessment on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Pre k worksheets, Preschool worksheets and Preschool assessment forms.
Endless uses for these School Alphabet Letter Cards! x Suggested Uses Letter and sound flashcards Letter Assessments Use in a Writing Center. Find this Pin and awesome free printable to.
It has two pages. The first page is for uppercase letters and the second is for lowercase letters. There is a box for each letter. The boxes each have handwriting lines. 8, Downloads. Alphabet Writing Assessment. Subject. Basic Reading, Writing, Handwriting. Grade Levels.
PreK, Kindergarten, 1 st.4/5(26). Tracing letters helps kids learn the alphabet and build penmanship skills. We provide a set of 26 tracing letter worksheets, each with both upper case and lower case letters. All worksheets are pdf files.
K5 Learning offers reading and math worksheets, workbooks and an online reading and math.Download